The Legacy of John McCain
John Sidney McCain III (born. John Sidney McCain IIIborn. August 29, 1936 at the a/b US air force "Coco Solo") is a U.S. Senator from Arizona since 1987. Member of the Republican party c 1982. The major candidate from Republicans on elections of the President of the United States 2008, a victim of the defeat of Democrat Barack Obama.
Grandfather and McCain's father was Admiral of the Navy of the United States. John McCain followed in their footsteps and in 1958 he graduated from the naval Academy USA, becoming the pilot of deck aircraft. A veteran of the Vietnam war. Shot down over Hanoi in 1967, he spent in a Vietnamese prisoner for 5 and a half years and was released in 1973 under the terms of the Paris agreement.
In 1981 McCain retired from military service, and in 1982 was elected to the House of representatives of the U.S. Congress from the Republican party. In 1986 he was elected Senator from Arizona, was re-elected three times — in 1992, 1998 and 2004. In 2000, tried to stand as a candidate in US presidents from Republican party, but lost to George Bush in party elections. Since February 2008, he was the main candidate in US presidents from Republicans the official support McCain had George W. Bush.
John Sidney McCain the third was born on 29 August 1936 at the air force base of the USA "Koko Solo" near the city of colon in Panama (at that time leased to the US Panama canal Zone). McCain's father, John Sidney "Jack" McCain Jr. (1911-1981), was a naval officer of the United States, the Second world war (as a submarine officer) who have completed service with the rank of four-star Admiral. Awarded Silver and Bronze stars. Mother Roberta McCain, nee Wright (b. in 1912). The John McCain's Grandfather, John S. McCain also had a rank of four-star Admiral, was one of the founders of aircraft carrier strategy of the Navy of the United States, participated in battles in the Pacific theater of world war II.
As a child John traveled with his parents in connection with the frequent transfers of his father's Affairs service (new London, Connecticut; pearl Harbor, Hawaii, other military bases in the Pacific). After the Second world war, the McCain family moved to Virginia, where John went to school St. Stephen's in Alexandria, having studied there until 1949, 1951-1954., McCain attended a private Episcopal school, where he achieved much success in wrestling. Due to frequent transfers of his father in total, McCain studied approximately 20 different schools. In childhood differed energetic character, temper and aggressiveness, the desire to win in competition with their peers.
Since childhood, McCain belonged to the Episcopal Church, but in 2007 moved to the Baptists (Baptist Church of Phoenix, Arizona, part of the southern Baptist Convention, the conservative, the largest Protestant denomination in the USA), which belongs to his second wife.
Following in the footsteps of his father, after high school, McCain enrolled in the naval Academy at Annapolis, from which he graduated in 1958. Every year, John got at least 100 shots and often subjected to sanctions for misconduct and failure to follow military regulations, unpeeled boots inappropriate remarks about his superiors. At the same time with the growth of 1 meter 70 cm and weight of 58 kg, he was distinguished as a able boxer in the lightweight division. McCain got good grades only in those subjects that interested him: history, English literature and public administration.However, out of 899 graduates of the year 1958 John McCain showed 894-th result.
In 1958-1960 for one and a half years he trained to attack aircraft Douglas A-1 "Skyraider" on the bases of naval aviation in Pensacola, Florida and "Corpus Christi" in Texas. During this time he earned the reputation of "party person", drove a Chevrolet Corvette, dated a stripper nicknamed "Marie the flame of Florida", as it later himself said McCain, "wasting your youth and health". John was an air hog and rarely would sit at the flight manual. During training in Texas the engine of the plane McCain failed and the plane crashed to the ground during landing. The pilot escaped with minor injuries. In 1960, McCain graduated from flight school and became a pilot of attack aircraft in marine aviation.
Since 1960, he served on aircraft carriers "Intrepid" and "enterprise" in the Caribbean. He served on the enterprise during the Cuban missile crisis and naval blockade of Cuba in October 1962. During his service in Spain, McCain inadvertently caught in flight, power lines, and this incident was the reason for his transfer to Navy base in Meridian, Mississippi, where he became an instructor.
In 1964, met a model from Philadelphia, Carol Shepp, whom he married July 3, 1965 McCain adopted her two sons from the first marriage (with a classmate of John) — Arch (3 years) and Andy (5 years). In September 1966 they had a daughter Sidney.
In December 1965, with McCain once again had an accident. During the flight he ignited the engine, John had successfully ejected but the plane crashed. McCain was asked to translate it instructor positions in combat service. In late 1966, he was transferred to the aircraft carrier "Forrestal". McCain continued his military service to attack aircraft Douglas A-4 "Skyhawk". By March 1967, his father became commander of the naval forces of the USA in Europe and served in London.
In the spring of 1967, "Forrestal" was transferred to the Pacific to participate in operation "Rolling thunder" — massive bombing of North Vietnam: cities, roads, hospitals, factories, bridges and so on. McCain, like his colleagues, expressed frustration that the list of objectives was limited, so they had to hit many times, with no guarantee that these goals were important to winning the war. The American pilots had to overcome air defense system, created with the participation of the Soviet Union.
July 29, 1967 during the fire at the "Forrestal" McCain was almost killed. Accidentally released unguided missile struck his plane, which was preparing for takeoff from the deck. He managed to escape by jumping off the deck. Following the explosion a fire killed 134 and injured 62 sailor of the U.S. Navy. Were irretrievably lost more than 20 aircraft. McCain was wounded by shrapnel in leg and chest. After the "Forrestal" was sent in for repair, 30 September 1967, McCain was transferred to the aircraft carrier "Oriskany" in the 163-th assault squadron. Just before the end of October 1967 he made 22 sorties, including on targets in the area of Haiphong and Hanoi.
26 Oct McCain by a squadron of 20 aircraft flew on bombing of power plants in the centre of Hanoi and was shot down by Soviet anti-aircraft missile (according to another version of fire anti-aircraft artillery). The pilot ejected and landed in the lake and almost drowned; he broke both arms and a leg and was severely beaten by Vietnamese soldiers, he shattered his shoulder, he was wounded twice. In this state, McCain was placed in the main prison in Hanoi — refused to send to the hospital, believing that he will die anyway.
During the interrogation, he, in accordance with U.S. military regulations, called only brief information about yourself, by name, the Vietnamese found that they had captured the son of a senior American officer. Only then he was given medical assistance, and his capture was officially announced. He was six weeks in hospital, during this period he was allowed a French television journalist, he was visited by a prominent Vietnamese leaders, who considered McCain a representative of the American military and political elite. In December 1967 lost 26 kg, and gray (he later received the nickname "White tornado"), McCain was transferred to a pow camp in Hanoi, where the care of comrades in captivity.
In March 1968 he was placed in solitary confinement.
In July 1968, his father became commander of the Pacific fleet of the United States and, accordingly, the commander of U.S. naval forces in the Vietnamese theater of war. Then the North Vietnamese government for propaganda purposes offered to release McCain early his comrades, however, he stated that he would accept the offer only if it were released of American soldiers who were captured before him. Refusal of McCain's release from Vietnamese officials told the U.S. representative at the Paris peace talks Averell Harriman.
In August 1968, McCain was subjected to regular beatings (every two hours), trying to break his will. At the same time, he was sick with dysentery, and the guards prevented him to commit suicide. After four days of such "interrogations," he wrote a short "recognition" in their criminal activities against the Vietnamese people — thus he used an uncharacteristic Communist jargon to show that the document was obtained through torture. New fractures received in these days has led to the fact that McCain has lost the ability to raise hands above the head. He later recalled: "I learned what we all learned over there: every man has his limit. I've reached my". However, this poor treatment did not stop his continued to beat (two to three times per week) for refusing to sign a new "confession". He recalled that every morning to it was part of the warden and demanded that the prisoner bowed to him, and in response to the refusal dealt him a blow in the head. In addition, McCain was trying to force them to give military information — after the regular beatings he agreed to name his comrades in the squadron, then transferring to the Vietnamese a list of football team "green Bay Packers". In the same period, he basically refused to meet with visiting Hanoi American anti-war activists to not give the possibility to use it for propaganda against his country.
In the summer of 1969, one of the freed from the captivity of the Americans reported the torture to which he was subjected. After that, the treatment of prisoners of war has improved. In October 1969, McCain was transferred to the prison "Hoa Lo", known among the American pilots under the ironic title "Hanoi Hilton". There he continued to refuse to meet with American anti-war activists and journalists, who sympathized with North Vietnam. Only McCain spent in captivity 1967 days (5 ½ years) and released on March 15, 1973 after the signing of the Paris peace accords between the United States and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
After returning from captivity, McCain remained in military service. A picture of his meeting with President Richard Nixon on 14 September 1973 at the White house became widely known (McCain at that time was still on crutches).
In 1973-1974 he studied at the National war College (Washington, D.C.) and was undergoing a very grueling and painful physical therapy, after which again could do without the crutches and to restore their skills pilot. At the end of 1974 he was appointed to serve in the training squadron located at the naval airport Cecil field near Jacksonville, Florida, and later became its commander. With his organizational skills linked to the improvement of combat readiness of the unit. In 1977 McCain became a naval liaison officer at the us Senate — he later called this experience "the real entrance to the world of politics."
In 1981, realizing that the consequences of wounds and injuries will not allow him to reach Admiral's rank (just like my grandfather and father), he left active duty with the rank of captain 1-St rank. During military service he was awarded medals the Silver star, Bronze star, Legion of honor, the Purple heart and flying Cross for outstanding achievement.
Shortly after returning from captivity, McCain he was separated from his wife, who in 1969 was involved in a severe accident, then largely lost its attractiveness. McCain took responsibility for the collapse of his first marriage to himself; he later wrote about his own selfishness and immaturity at that time and that he could not avoid acknowledging his guilt, referring to his Vietnamese captivity. 2 APR 1980, wife officially divorced; McCain left his former wife at home in Virginia and Florida, as well as continued to Fund her treatment.
May 17 1980, he entered into a new marriage with Cindy Lou Hensley, a teacher from Phoenix, Arizona and the daughter of a local prominent businessman James Willis Hensley (wife inherited a huge company that sells beer). In 1984 they had a daughter, Megan, 1986 — son John Sidney IV ("Jack"), like his father, educated at the naval school at Annapolis, in 1988 — son, James, in 2006, the enlisted marine and at the end of 2007 aimed to serve in Iraq. In 1991 the couple took in a family of three-month old girl from Bangladesh, who were in the orphanage of mother Teresa and needing treatment in the United States — it was called Bridget. After completing all the formalities it was adopted in 1993.
With the active support of McCain's father was involved in the political life of the United States and in November 1982 he was elected member of the house of representatives of the U.S. Congress from the first electoral district of Arizona as a Republican. Two years later, he easily re-elected for a new two-year term. McCain has generally supported the political and economic course of President Ronald Reagan. However, he voted against the visit to Lebanon of U.S. Marines who were part of the multinational force, as it did not see prospects for a US military presence in the country. With this vote that went against the interests of the Republican administration, is related to the beginning of folding the reputation of McCain as a politician is individualist. A month after the vote, the us Marines suffered significant losses as a result of the explosion of the Beirut barracks, which confirmed the rightness of McCain.
During your stay in the House of representatives, McCain has specialized in the problems of the Indians and participated in the implementation of the law on economic development of Indian territories, signed in 1985, the same year he for the first time after the captivity, visited Vietnam with the legendary journalist Walter Cronkite.
In November 1986, McCain was elected United States Senator from Arizona, replacing the former Republican candidate for President in 1964, Barry Goldwater. In this election he got 60% of the vote. Officially his term of office began in January 1987. He was re-elected to the Senate in November 1992 (56%), November 1998 (69%) and November 2004 (77%, and for McCain this time voted even most voters-Democrats of Arizona).
Since 1987, McCain worked to the Senate committees on armed forces, the trade and of Indian Affairs. In 1995-1997 and 2005-2007, he was Chairman of the Committee of Indian Affairs, 1997-2001 and 2003-2005 he was Chairman of the Committee on trade. Since January 2007, the senior representative of the minority in the armed services Committee. Since 1993, McCain is the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the International Republican Institute.At the beginning of his stay in the Senate, McCain was involved in a big political scandal connected with activity of a banker Charles Keating (Charles Keating), who was in 1982-1987 by one of its political sponsors (only Keating has financially supported the election campaigns of five U.S. senators — the Keating Five). In addition, McCain and his family made at least nine trips at the expense of Keating — he later returned their cost, amounting to more than 13 thousand$
When Keating began financial problems, McCain repeatedly met with financial regulators (supervising savings banks USA) in order to assist Keating. Support from McCain and other senators, did not lead to any results, except for moral damage to them (later Finance company Keating went bankrupt, he was held in prison for five years, although able to pay with most victims). Although McCain was not accused of illegal acts, but the Senate Committee on ethics reprimanded him in connection with this history; he acknowledged the error of his behavior in this matter.
After "the works of Keating" McCain has been actively criticizing the influence of big money on American politics. By 1994 he, along with Senator Ross Feingold (Democrat from Wisconsin) has developed a bill to limit political donations to election campaigns for corporations and other organizations — in order to avoid repeating situations such as the "case of Keating". The bill McCain-Feingold met strong opposition from prominent figures in both major parties in the US, but has the support of the media and society. In 1995 the first version of this law was submitted to the Senate, but failed in the following year, this same thing happened in 1998 and 1999.. the Law of McCain-Feingold was adopted only in 2002 (he became known as a Bipartisan reform act of election campaigns) after the controversial case of Enron, increasing attention to the problem of corruption. This law is considered a major accomplishment of McCain during his senatorial career; he also increased his fame as a "political Maverick".
In the early 1990-ies McCain, together with another Vietnam veteran, Senator John Kerry, addressed the issue of American servicemen missing in Vietnam, it again repeatedly visited the country. Activity McCain contributed to the normalization of us-Vietnamese relations. In the same period, has improved his relationship with Kerry earlier, McCain took it negatively because of the involvement of Kerry the anti-war movement after returning from Vietnam.
As Chairman of the Committee on trade McCain advocated an increase in taxes on cigarettes so that these funds went to Finance anti-Smoking campaigns to reduce the number of smokers-adolescents on the increase of research in the field of health and to compensation for the health costs associated with the effects of Smoking. However, he received the support of the democratic administration of bill Clinton but disagreed with the majority of senators from his own party — as a result of his initiative was not implemented.
During the presidency of George Bush Jr., McCain voted against legislation reducing taxes in 2001 and 2003 In 2001, he was one of two Republican senators who did not support this law due to the fact that the tax cuts were not matched by budget cuts. In 2003, in his view, the tax cut was unwise because of the war in Iraq. However, he supported tax cuts in 2006, to prevent their growth during this period.
A supporter of the Iraq war, McCain, however, addressed in the 2005 legislative initiative, which prohibited inhumane treatment of prisoners, including those in Guantanamo. My role in this position, McCain played to his own experience as a pow. "McCain amendment" was adopted by the Senate, and President Bush initially does not preclude the possibility of the veto, in December 2005 signed the law.
In 2000, McCain participated in the presidential primaries of the Republican party, becoming the most serious rival of George W. Bush. He managed to win in new Hampshire, Arizona, Michigan and New England States — Massachusetts, Rhode island, Connecticut, Vermont. On his side made the liberal part of the Republicans, but against him were active conservative Protestant leaders, which McCain has criticized as "self-appointed leaders." During the election campaign against McCain was the use of "dirty technologies", designed for conservative Republican voters — so, before the psychologically important primaries in South Carolina was circulated a rumor that McCain has an illegitimate daughter from a relationship with an African-American. This rumor was linked with the fact of adoption to them girls from Bangladesh, but for the remainder of the "primaries" time McCain had not time to tell the voters the truth. As a result, he lost, having 42% of the vote against 53 percent cast for Bush. March 9, 2000 McCain, defeated in the primaries in key States, refused from further participation in the election campaign.
During the election campaign of 2004 McCain was considered by the team of democratic contender John Kerry as a possible candidate for Vice-President to attract the votes of liberal Republicans. But McCain refused the offer, remaining faithful to the Republican party and supported the candidacy of George W. Bush for a second term.
February 28, 2007, McCain announced the beginning of his presidential election campaign of 2008, becoming one of the most famous American voters candidates (in particular, by the experience of campaign 2000). Before that he sought to normalize its relations with conservative Christian preachers. However, McCain's position on immigration has caused a decline in his popularity among Republican voters and, as a consequence, the reduction of receipts to the electoral Fund by mid-2007 Free and informal adviser to John McCain in his campaign of the year is Robert Kagan.
But at the start of the election campaign 2008, McCain won the primaries in new Hampshire, South Carolina and Florida, which made him the leading candidate among Republicans. He strengthened their positions during the "super Tuesday" on February 5, 2008, beating the most electorally significant States — new York and California — as well as in Connecticut, Illinois, new Jersey, Delaware, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arizona. In February cemented their lead, winning the States of Washington, Virginia, Maryland, Wisconsin, district of Columbia. On March 4, he was victorious in the States of Vermont, Rhode island, Ohio and Texas, providing his nomination from the Republican party in the presidential elections of 2008
March 5, candidate McCain during the personal meeting was supported by President George Bush, who said: "This guy showed incredible courage, strength of character and perseverance in order to reach this point. This is the man we need as President, someone who can make hard decisions, who will not give up in the face of danger".
About McCain very harshly responded Fidel Castro in a number of articles specifically dedicated to him entitled "the Republican Candidate", where, in particular, has denied claims by McCain that the Cubans were torturing American prisoners of war in Vietnam.
On August 29 John McCain announced Governor of Alaska Sarah Palin candidate for Vice-President of the United States. A month later, she, for the first time among American politicians of such level in the XXI century, announced the possibility of war between USA and Russia.
McCain advocated the strengthening of the military potential of the United States, the increase in the number of American armed forces and the deployment of a missile defense system (NMD). In his opinion, "effective missile defence is critical as insurance against potential threats originating from possible strategic competitors like Russia and China."
He is a supporter of liberalizing immigration law (with some limitations) and action to prevent global warming in these matters, his position is at odds with the views of the conservative majority of the Republican electorate. Unlike most of his colleagues in the party, he voted in the Senate against an amendment to the Constitution banning same-sex marriage, and Federal program funding stem cell research. At the same time its position on a number of other significant issues such as abortion, the death penalty, the problems of social security — is clearly conservative.
John McCain is known for their extremely negative attitude to the policy of former Russian President Vladimir Putin. In 2003, he said that "American foreign policy must reflect the sobering conclusion that a Russian government that does not share our most basic values cannot be a friend or partner and risks his own behavior to put yourself in the category of enemies." In his opinion, "a creeping coup against the forces of democracy and market capitalism in Russia threatens the foundations of U.S.-Russian relations and raises the specter of a new era of "cold peace" between Washington and Moscow." Playing with the famous remark of George Bush about "the soul of Putin," after meeting with the Russian President in Slovenia McCain said: "When I looked at Putin's eyes I saw three letters: KGB."
In 2005 McCain and Senator Joseph Lieberman introduced in the Senate draft resolution with the requirement to suspend Russia's membership in the "big eight". In the same year became one of the initiators of the adoption of the Senate resolution, accusing the Russian authorities that the trial of Mikhail Khodorkovsky and Platon Lebedev was politically motivated. The requirement to exclude Russia from the G8 McCain expressed in the future: Today we see Russia, headed by a clique of former intelligence officers. They're trying to intimidate their democratic neighbors, such as Georgia, try to play on Europe's dependence on Russian oil and gas. Need to redefine the Western view revanchist Russia. First you need to expand the G8 to include leading market democracies — Brazil and India, as well as to exclude Russia.
View McCain on the processes occurring in the post-Soviet space, also the opposite position of the Kremlin. So, he is actively criticizing the President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko, in this connection, in 2004 he was denied entry into this country, according to the McCain, his supporters and parts of the media hostile to the current Belarusian leadership. The Belarusian authorities claim that this was a symmetric answer (not just against McCain, but also several other American officials) for similar action in the United States against the Belarusian President and other representatives of the Belarusian leadership. In 2005, McCain along with Senator Hillary Clinton nominated Mikhail Saakashvili and Viktor Yushchenko for the Nobel peace prize. In the application it was said: "the Award of these two people the Nobel peace prize will be celebrated not only their historic roles in Georgia and Ukraine, but also generate hope and inspiration for all those seeking freedom in other countries where it is not."
In 2007, McCain was a supporter of the bill on support for NATO membership of Georgia and Ukraine. August 26, 2008 McCain said: "After Russia illegally recognized the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Western countries ought to think about the independence of the North Caucasus and Chechnya, which were subjected to the bloody violence on the part of Russia".
The main slogan of election campaign of McCain-Palin was "Country First" (First America!). But even a bright pre-election campaign and enthusiastic support of Hollywood superstars Arnold Schwarzenegger didn't make an impression on voters, with unexpectedly weak results John McCain lost the election in 2008.
Awards and titles:
"Legion of honor"
Medal Purple heart
Cross "For outstanding merits"
The prisoner of war medal
Medal of National defense
Medal for service in Vietnam
Medal Vietnam campaign
After surgery to remove melanoma (a malignant tumor) in 2000, McCain left cheek left a scar, which is still pretty good visible.
Who is Barack Obama?
Sources and additional information:
ru.wikipedia.org — Wikipedia